The gums are the most important part of a dazzling smile. When the gingiva is swollen and red, your smile will loose its beauty. This is called gingivitis. The aetiology of gum disease is bacterial plaque. Plaque causes an inflammatory response, which causes localized redness and bleeding of the gingival tissue. Gingivitis is a reversible condition, once the bacterial biofilm is removed, the gums, in time, would return to its healthy status. On the other hand, if left untreated and for a longer period of time then periodontitis could set in.


Periodontitis is inflammation of the periodontium, which consist of the hard and soft tissues that support the tooth. The clinical manifestations of periodontal disease are a result of bacterial plaque’s interaction with the supporting tooth structure. Depending on ones genetic disposition this interaction can cause rapid inflammatory response in the tissue and when it is not prevented, destruction of the soft and hard tissues surrounding the teeth would ensue. Once bone loss occurs, root exposure and/or deep gingival pockets forms, then infection and tooth loss is inevitable. Unfortunately, once the bone has been compromised and lost due to periodontitis, in some case it can’t be repaired to its original state. Therefore, preventing periodontitis is the best cure.